Monge utilise cette théorie pour déterminer les chemins satisfaisant au minimum dans le problème des déblais et remblais considéré dans l'espace. Another of his papers in the volume for 1783 relates to the production of water by the combustion of hydrogen. It was he who found the explanation of the mirage, a phenomenon totally unknown until then in Europe, and which, presenting to the eyes of the exhausted soldiers and dying of thirst, the vain appearance of a sheet of water leaking as they approached, misled them away from the columns and caused the death of many of them. Gaspard Monge, a surveyor, was born at Beaune, in Burgundy, in 1746. Monge died at Paris on July 28, 1818, and his remains were interred in a mausoleum in the Le Père Lachaise Cemetery in Paris. Géométrie descriptive. At the age of fourteen he executed a fire-pump, the effects of which were admired by the most educated. During the French Revolution he served as the Minister of the Marine, and was involved in the reform of the French educational system, helping to found the École Polytechnique Related to that, the Monge soil-transport problem leads to a weak-topology definition of a distance between distributions rediscovered many times since by such as L. V. Kantorovich, Paul Lévy, Leonid Vaseršteĭn, and others; and bearing their names in various combinations in various contexts. "I had," replied he, "two means of infallible success, an invincible tenacity and fingers. Gaspard Monge, bá tước Péluse (9 tháng 5 năm 1746 – 28 tháng 7 năm 1818) là một nhà toán học, nhà cách mạng người Pháp và được coi là cha đẻ của hình học hoạ hình.Trong cuộc Cách mạng Pháp, ông đã tham gia vào việc cải cách toàn bộ hệ thống giáo dục, thành … Documentary sources. The city of Beaune raised a statue in Monge in 1849, and the city of Paris gave its name to one of the main arteries of the left bank of the Seine. – Párizs, 1818. július 28.) On the formation of the Sénat conservateur he was appointed a member of that body, with an ample provision and the title of count of Pelusium (Comte de Péluse), and he became the Senate conservateur's president during 1806–7. 3 Nevertheless, he worked on the development of his ideas in his spare time. Monge's name is one of the 72 names inscribed on the base of the Eiffel Tower. Upon his return to France, he as appointed as the Director of the École Polytechnique, but early in 1798 he was sent to Italy on a mission that ended in the establishment, of the short-lived Roman Republic. Aubry, Paul V., Monge, Le savant ami de Napoléon Bonaparte, Paris, Gauthiers-Villars, 1954. ", François Joseph de Gratet, vicomte Dubouchage, Ministers of the French National Convention, Jean-Marie Roland, vicomte de la Platière, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Gaspard_Monge&oldid=988953602, Commission des Sciences et des Arts members, Members of the French Academy of Sciences, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the New International Encyclopedia, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CINII identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Léonore identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 16 November 2020, at 05:52. L'année suivante, il étudie systématiquement les propriétés des surfaces développables, définies par la propriété de leurs plans tangents, en déduit leur équation aux dérivées partielles la plus générale et introduit la notion d'arête de rebroussement. Monge was born at Beaune, Côte-d'Or, the son of a merchant. It was there that he began his immortal labors touching the descriptive geometry he created. He took a very active part in the measures for the establishment of the Ecole Normale (which existed only during the first four months of the year 1795), and of the school for public works, afterwards the École Polytechnique, and was at each of them professor for descriptive geometry. Monge became the soul of all scientific research. "Monge" redirects here. For other uses, see, credited Monge with the birth of engineering drawing, 72 names inscribed on the base of the Eiffel Tower, Mémoire sur la théorie des déblais et des remblais, Avis aux ouvriers en fer, sur la fabrication de l'acier. Lieutenant du génie, il prit part à la campagne de Russie, où il fut fait prisonnier et relégué à Saratov sur la Volga. Gaspard Monge, Comte de Péluse (9 May 1746 – 28 July 1818) was a French mathematician, the inventor of descriptive geometry (the mathematical basis of technical drawing), and the father of differential geometry. 2019 - Gaspard Monge by C215, Illustres! Monge was appointed president of the Egyptian commission, and he resumed his connection with the École Polytechnique. Durant son emprisonnement, privé de tout ouvrage scientifique et réduit à ses souvenirs des cours […] Lire la suite, Au sens premier du terme, la stéréotomie est l'art de découper différents volumes en vue de leur assemblage ; en architecture, elle désigne plus spécifiquement l'art de la coupe des pierres en vue de la construction des voûtes, trompes, coupoles ou volées d'escaliers... Si l'on parle encore de la « stéréotomie du bois » à propos de l'assemblage des bois de charpente, on constate que ce sens dispar […] Lire la suite, Le 12, François Mitterrand préside la cérémonie de transfert au Panthéon des cendres de l'abbé Henri Grégoire, prêtre et évêque constitutionnel, et de Gaspard Monge, mathématicien, fondateur de l'École polytechnique. Gaspard Monge was a French mathematician. C'est seulement à la fin du xviii e siècle que renaît l'intérêt pour la géométrie projective. other fields: Marguerite Duras, Les Pyrénées Catalanes. "How," said he, "have you been able, without a guide or a model, to bring such an enterprise to a successful conclusion?" Lire la suite, Dans le chapitre « Découverte de la recherche opérationnelle » Après des études au collège de Beaune puis à celui de la Trinité à Lyon, il enseigne dès l'âge de dix-sept ans les sciences physiques. Il y introduit, entre autres, la notion de polaire, surface développable définie comme l'enveloppe des plans normaux à la courbe, et montre qu'une courbe gauche admet une infinité de développées, qui forment une famille de géodésiques de la polaire. Gaspard Monge, Comte de Péluse (9 May 1746 – 28 July 1818) was a French mathematician, the inventor of descriptive geometry (the mathematical basis of technical drawing), and the father of differential geometry. He took the most active part in the creation of the defenses with which France had a compelling need. Membre du Club des Jacobins dès 1790, il fait partie le 10 août 1792 des six membres du conseil exécutif provisoire, et occupe le poste de ministre de la Marine, qu'il conserve aux débuts de la Première République. Gaspard Monge (n.10 mai 1746 - d. 28 iulie 1818) a fost matematician și revoluționar francez cunoscut pentru crearea geometriei descriptive.. În timpul Revoluției Franceze, acesta a fost implicat în reorganizarea sistemului educațional, înființând École polytechnique și École normale supérieure de Paris, unde a fost și profesor. Ce mémoire est déjà caractéristique du style intuitif de Monge, mêlant avec élégance la géométrie pure, l'analyse et la géométrie différentielle. Having met with a friend of Rocroy's, a twenty-year-old widow, Horbon, he became deeply enamored of it. Leçons données aux écoles normales was published in 1799 from transcriptions of his letures given in 1795. Although pressed by the minister to prepare a complete course of mathematics, he declined to do so, on the grounds that this would deprive Mme Bézout of her only income, that from the sale of the textbooks written by her late husband. En décembre 1989, ses cendres furent transférées au Panthéon , dans le caveau VII , à l'occasion du bicentenaire de la Révolution. From May 1796 to October 1797 Monge was in Italy with C.L. The eldest, the one who was to become the great Monge, was, from the beginning, an elite subject. On the formation of the Sénat conservateur he was appointed a member of that body, with an ample provision and the title of count of Pelusium (Comte de Péluse), and he became the Senate conservateur's president during 1806–7. He later published Application de l'analyse à la géométrie, which enlarged on the Lectures. : C215 autour du Panthéon. An officer of engineers who saw it wrote to the commandant of the École Royale du Génie at Mézières, recommending Monge to him and he was given a job as a draftsman. , Media related to Gaspard Monge at Wikimedia Commons, "Monge" redirects here. This Unless otherwise stated, the He explored the ruins of Pelusium, whose name he later received as a title of nobility. francia matematikus, az ábrázoló geometria megalkotója, az analitikus geometria úttörője; ez a két irányzat azóta a projektív geometria részévé vált. Năm 1777, Gaspard Monge cưới một goá phụ trẻ tên Catherine Huart (1747-1846). A statue portraying him was erected in Beaune in 1849. Hommage à l'abbé Grégoire, à Monge et à Condorcet au Panthéon. Upon his return to France, he was appointed as the Director of the École Polytechnique, but early in 1798 he was sent to Italy on a mission that ended in the establishment of the short-lived Roman Republic. He died in Paris on July 18, 1818. Panthéon de Paris) je historický objekt v Paříži.Je dominantou města na vrcholku kopce svaté Jenovéfy v Latinské čtvrti.V jeho podzemní kryptě jsou uloženi významní francouzští umělci, myslitelé a vědci jako například Alexandre Dumas starší, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Voltaire, Victor Hugo, Pierre Curie a Marie Curie-Skłodowská Place Monge au coeur de Beaune, une statue de bronze honore la mémoire du natif de la cité . After Bossut left the École Royale du Génie Monge took his place in January 1769, and in 1770 he was also appointed instructor in experimental physics.. Référence électronique. Then on the fall of Napoleon he had all of his honours taken away, and he even excluded from the list of members of the reconstituted Institute. His father was a little itinerant cutler merchant, who made all the sacrifices to put his three sons in college. En quelques années, il devient un des mathématiciens les plus en vue du royaume (publiant des mémoires à l'Académie des sciences dans des domaines aussi divers que le calcul des variations, la géométrie infinitésimale, la théorie des équations aux dérivées partielles et la combinatoire) et s'intéresse également à la physique, la chimie et la métallurgie. Born (1746-05-09) 9 May 1746. He was a strong supporter of the Revolution, and in 1792, on the creation by the Legislative Assembly of an executive council, Monge accepted the office of Minister of the Marine, and held this office from 10 August 1792 to 10 April 1793, when he resigned. This expression meant: Child comparable to gold, that is to say pupil disintegrated. A statue portraying him was erected in Beaune in 1849.  Although pressed by the minister to prepare a complete course of mathematics, he declined to do so on the grounds that this would deprive Mme Bézout of her only income, that from the sale of the textbooks written by her late husband. He was appointed Minister of the Navy on the 10th of August, 1792. Une place et une rue de Paris portent son nom, ainsi qu'un cratère de la Lune. When the Revolution broke out in July, he embraced with enthusiasm the ideas of regeneration proclaimed by the Constituent Assembly. © 2020 Encyclopædia Universalis France.Tous droits de propriété industrielle et intellectuelle réservés. There was an established method for doing this which involved lengthy calculations but Monge devised a way of solving the problems by using drawings. Cette dernière définition lui fournit une application pour l'étude des ombres et des pénombres. 12 décembre 1989. In 1786 he wrote and published his Traité élémentaire de la statique. At this time he came to contact with Charles Bossut, the professor of mathematics at the École Royale. There was an established method for doing this which involved lengthy calculations but Monge devised a way of solving the problems by using drawings. He did it so brilliantly that one day Lagrange, who had attended one of his lessons full of new ideas, said to him: "You have come, my dear colleague, to expose very elegant things, I would like to have them doing. " Bruno BELHOSTE, , After finishing his education in 1764 he returned to Beaune, where he made a large-scale plan of the town, inventing the methods of observation and constructing the necessary instruments; the plan was presented to the town, and is still preserved in their library. : […] 5 Membre de la commission des sciences et des arts lors de la campagne d'Italie (1796-1797), il y rencontre le général Napoléon Bonaparte.  This however has not been corroborated by any statement made by himself. Il montre que les normales à la surface le long des lignes de courbure engendrent deux familles de surfaces développables (les normalies), dont les arêtes de rebroussement engendrent à leur tour une seule et même surface à deux nappes, dite la focale de la surface donnée. Il montre que toute surface développable peut aussi bien être définie comme la surface engendrée par le mouvement d'une droite constamment tangente à une courbe gauche donnée qui est son arête de rebroussement, que comme l'enveloppe d'une famille de plans tangents à deux surfaces données (famille de plans à un paramètre).  While there he became friendly with Napoleon Bonaparte. Gaspard Monge. University of St Andrews. Gaspard Monge passed through the Military School of Mézières, first as a pupil, then as a teacher and teacher.  When the Committee of Public Safety made an appeal to the academics to assist in the defence of the republic, he applied himself wholly to these operations, and distinguished himself by his energy, writing the Description de l'art de fabriquer les canons and Avis aux ouvriers en fer sur la fabrication de l'acier. The marriage took place and this union was always cloudless. "Do not stop, Madam, with such trifles," said Monge, "I have solved problems in my life that are far more difficult, and do not worry about my lack of fortune, the sciences will do it."  It is also noteworthy to mention that in his Mémoire sur quelques phénomènes de la vision Monge proposed an early implicit explanation of the color constancy phenomenon based on several known observations. Gaspard Monge på gravsted.dk Gaspard Monge. Avec Condorcet, Laplace, Lagrange et Borda, il fait partie de la Commission Centrale qui met au point un système d'unification des poids et mesures : le système décimal. O'Connor, John J.; Robertson, Edmund F.. "MacTutor History of Mathematics archive". little town he lived in. Le 12, François Mitterrand préside la cérémonie de transfert au Panthéon des cendres de l'abbé Henri Grégoire, prêtre et évêque constitutionnel, et de Gaspard Monge, mathématicien, fondateur de l'École polytechnique. Élargissez votre recherche dans Universalis, Le premier travail important de Monge, présenté à l'Académie des sciences en 1771 et publié en 1785, porte sur les courbes gauches. website is a private, unofficial site resulting from the compilation work of the works of different authors.  His later mathematical papers are published (1794–1816) in the Journal and the Correspondence of the École Polytechnique.  His remains were first interred in a mausoleum in Le Père Lachaise Cemetery in Paris and later transferred to the Panthéon in Paris. Tome 8, Description de l'art de fabriquer des canons, Géométrie descriptive. This caused Monge to develop an interest in metallurgy. , In 1777, Monge married Cathérine Huart, who owned a forge. Son dévouement à l'Empereur lui vaut d'être nommé grand officier de la Légion d'Honneur et anobli (créé comte de Péluse).  In 1762 he went to the Collège de la Trinité at Lyon, where, one year after he had begun studying, he was made a teacher of physics at the age of just seventeen. Monge was born at Beaune, Côte-d'Or, the son of a merchant. He returned to Rome the following year to cooperate in the establishment of the Republic. His manual skill was highly regarded, but his mathematical skills were not made use of. : […] de Paris, 1781), which is an elegant investigation of the problem with earthworks referred to in the title and establishes in connection with it his capital discovery of the curves of curvature of a surface. His later mathematical papers are published (1794 — 1816) in the Journal and the Correspondence of the École Polytechnique. He won first prizes in all faculties; his masters found a particular pleasure in inscribing, beside his name, the somewhat mannered formula of the schools of that time: Puer aureus. L'imposant tombeau de Gaspard Monge se trouve au cimetière parisien du Père-Lachaise, division 18 . Acesta a avut contribuții în geometria analitică și diferențială (ecuația planului normal, a planului tangent, suprafețe desfășurabile, liniile de curbură ale unei suprafețe), precum și în teoria ecuațiilor diferențiale sau cu derivate parțiale (teoria curbelor caracteristice).  Géométrie descriptive. In 1783, after leaving Mézières, he was, on the death of É. Bézout, appointed examiner of naval candidates. […] Lire la suite. From there Monge joined Napoleon's expedition to Egypt, taking part with Berthollet and in the scientific work of the Institut d'Égypte and Egyptian Institute of Sciences and Arts. Copyright © 2008-2020 Lionel A. Bouchon et Didier Grau. Monge mất ngày 28 tháng 7 năm 1818 ở Paris và được an táng trong một lăng mộ ở Nghĩa trang Père-Lachaise. Tombé en disgrâce à la Restauration, il est victime de plusieurs crises d'apoplexie et s'éteint le 28 juillet 1818 à Paris. He was educated at the college of the Oratorians at Beaune. Monge's results had been anticipated by, Sakarovitch, Joel, 2005, "Géométrie descriptive" in. de l’acad. consulté le 16 novembre 2020.  Monge's paper gives the ordinary differential equation of the curves of curvature, and establishes the general theory in a very satisfactory manner; the application to the interesting particular case of the ellipsoid was first made by him in a later paper in 1795.. Après avoir été l'élève de Gaspard Monge à l'École polytechnique, Jean Victor Poncelet commença une carrière militaire. Gaspard Monge naît le 9 mai 1746 à Beaune (sa maison natale se situe au n° 5 de la rue qui porte aujourd'hui son nom), dans une famille appartenant à la petite bourgeoisie. In 1780 he became a member of the Académie; his friendship with C.L. His funeral was held 30 July 1818 at St. Thomas Aquinas Church in Paris. În timpul Revoluției Franceze, acesta a fost implicat în reorganizarea sistemului educațional, înființând École polytechnique și École normale supérieure de Paris, unde a fost și profesor. His manual skill was highly regarded, but his mathematical skills were not made use of. …pour nos abonnés, l’article se compose de 4 pages. Monge, in 1795, was appointed a member of the commission charged with choosing the masterpieces ceded by the Pope and sent to Italy. When, at the first meeting of the Cairo Institute, August 23, 1798, the appointment of the president was called, the general-in-chief declined these functions in the following terms: "We must place Monge and not me at the head of Institute, it will appear in Europe much more reasonable. " Gaspard Monge, Comte de Péluse (9 May 1746 – 28 July 1818) was a French mathematician, the inventor of descriptive geometry (the mathematical basis of technical drawing), and the father of differential geometry. In 1777, Monge married Cathérine Huart, who owned a forge. Enfin, en 1776, Monge introduit la notion de lignes de courbure d'une courbe, définies par la propriété d'être en tout point tangentes à une direction principale (c'est-à-dire à la section de courbure maximale ou minimale en ce point). La Révolution française le voit s'engager en politique. Those studying at the school were drawn from the aristocracy, so he was not allowed admission to the institution itself. URL : https://www.universalis.fr/encyclopedie/gaspard-monge/, Encyclopædia Universalis - Contact - Mentions légales - Consentement RGPD, Consulter le dictionnaire de l'Encyclopædia Universalis. "Gaspard Monge, comte de Péluse" par Jean-Baptiste Mauzaisse (Corbeil 1784 - Paris 1844). Copyright 2013 - 2020 - Any reproduction prohibited without the authorization of the author. GPS : 48° 51' 30.13'' North / 2° 17' 40.13'' East. Gaspard Monge is one of 72 scientists whose name is on the first floor of the Eiffel Tower. Gaspard Monge (n.10 mai 1746 - d. 28 iulie 1818) a fost matematician și revoluționar francez cunoscut pentru crearea geometriei descriptive.. În timpul Revoluției Franceze, acesta a fost implicat în reorganizarea sistemului educațional, înființând École polytechnique și École normale supérieure de Paris, unde a fost și profesor. L'imposant tombeau de Gaspard Monge se trouve au cimetière parisien du Père-Lachaise, division 18 .En décembre 1989, ses cendres furent transférées au Panthéon , dans le caveau VII , à l'occasion du bicentenaire de la Révolution. They accompanied Bonaparte to Syria, and returned with him in 1798 to France. « MONGE GASPARD - (1746-1818) », Encyclopædia Universalis [en ligne], which translated my thought with geometric fidelity. Gaspard Monge [vysl.gaspár monž], vévoda z Péluse (10. května 1746, Beaune – 28. července 1818, Paříž) byl francouzský přírodovědec, matematik a revoluční politik. He was a strong supporter of the Revolution, and in 1792, on the creation by the Legislative Assembly of an executive council, Monge accepted the office of Minister of the Marine, and held this office from 10 August 1792 to 10 April 1793, when he resigned. Hommage à l'abbé Grégoire, à Monge et à Condorcet au Panthéon. In 1783, Monge entered the Academy of Sciences in place of Bezout, and until 1789 he devoted himself to mathematics and meteorological research. Jump to navigation Jump to search "Monge" redirects here. Berthollet began at this time. Dernière modification : 2020-01-02 20:14:37. Monge's 1781 memoir is also the earliest known anticipation of Linear Programming type of problems, in particular of the transportation problem. Pantheon (fr. Articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with no article parameter, Articles incorporating text from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, Articles incorporating text from Wikipedia, Commission des Sciences et des Arts members, Members of the French Academy of Sciences, 72 names inscribed on the base of the Eiffel Tower, http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Biographies/Monge.html, François Joseph de Gratet, vicomte Dubouchage, https://military.wikia.org/wiki/Gaspard_Monge?oldid=5215383, Pages using duplicate arguments in template calls, Between 1770 and 1790 contributed various papers on mathematics and physics to the, A paper in the volume for 1783 relates to the production of water by the combustion of hydrogen.